There are three main types of sow material, powdered material, liquid feed and pellets. Powder materials can be divided into two types: coarse powder (simple mixture) and commercial fine powder. Liquid feed is a form of feed that has emerged in European countries in the past decade to reduce the use of antibiotics and improve the welfare of sows. With the sharp increase in corn prices in recent years, some customers realize that the cost of ingredients and ingredients is different. In the few cases, the demand for compounded materials has increased dramatically, so feed mills are developed to cope with market changes. However, the use of pellets has been controversial. Now, in combination with the problems in the nutritional physiology and production practice of sows, we will analyze them.
1. The sow's intake of powdered material is greater than that of pellets.
The reason behind this fact is that the sow has developed teeth, a flexible tongue and a large mouth. The stimulation of the taste and smell of the powder material makes the secretion of the first digestive juice larger than that of the pellet. Salivary amylase also acts more rapidly on the powder than on the pellets. Therefore, sows have a stronger appetite for powdered materials. In the wild, sows have a wide range of foods, including roots and tubers, green feed, grain seeds, small animals, etc. Mature grain seeds are very hard, so granular food is not the first choice for sows. Moreover, pigs have the habit of eating food. The consequences of eating a large amount of pellets at a time are very serious: the particles that have not been fully chewed remain in the digestive tract for a long time, and the lack of secretion of digestive juice in the first stage also causes the gastrointestinal motility to slow down. Especially in the perinatal period, the decline in sow appetite and constipation has become inevitable.
2, powder material is more "fresh" than granules
It is well known that powdered materials are not easy to store. In the north, the inventory time in summer cannot exceed 15 days. Because of the larger contact area with oxygen in the air after opening the package, it is more susceptible to oxidation; while the pellets are different, after extrusion, The air contact area is reduced and can be placed for a longer period of time. In terms of on-site application effects, powdered materials produced within 3 days are more advantageous (the fewer intermediate links, the better for sows).
After the pellets are produced through quenching, squeezing, cooling, grading, packing, etc., is it the best feed for sows? Here are the economic factors, only the following points:
(1) In the summer, can the cooling fan cool the newly produced materials quickly?
(2) Can the granulation process be effectively sterilized? From the microbiological point of view, the effect of dry heat sterilization is better than that of moist heat sterilization, but can the granulation process be achieved? Moreover, the granulated material has been half. Is the open type delivered to the finished product warehouse, is there any possibility of secondary pollution?
(3) Some thermosensitive substances such as phytase, microecological preparations and vitamins, etc., is it appropriate to increase the safety threshold? As far as common sense is concerned, as long as it is an enzyme protein, the probability of survival at high temperature is less than 10%, then super What does the amount of addition mean?
3, powder material is more adaptable than pellets
For finishing pigs, the finer the material powder, the higher the digestibility, and the 2.0-3.0mm particles are most popular on the premise of ensuring that they are not digestive ulcers. Sows are different, especially for sows within 3 fetus. Since the feed ensures a certain growth rate of lean meat, it also needs to exercise its gastrointestinal function, so that the genetic advantage of its high birth rate can be exerted.
Under the premise that the nutrient demand is satisfied, the crushing size of the feed is closely related to the function of the upper digestive tract, and the fiber content in the feed is related to the post-intestinal fermentation. Most studies have shown that a crushing particle size of 4.0 mm is more beneficial to the health of the sow, while a crude fiber content of 5% to 8% is beneficial for improving the moderate growth of the microbes in the post-intestine of the sow. Production is very unfavorable, and the most important point is that it has a great influence on the service life of the ring mold.
So what is the ideal sow material? In order to maintain the sow's seed performance, I think the sow material should include three parts: one is the nutrient full-price powder, to ensure the digestibility of protein and other nutrients. The crude fiber level should not exceed 5%. The feeding method can be wet mix (water ratio 2-3:1) or tide feed (water ratio 1:1 or less). The second is green-green feed or tuber tuber feed, which can be washed, chopped and fed, supplemented with some fiber and vitamins, and can play the role of gastrointestinal health care. The third is soil or peat feed to protect the sow's hoof health. The reason why the high-intensity breeding sow breeds have high frequency of population renewal, poor bone development, and weak hoof quality are the main reasons. They often have not reached 5 or 6 production, and have been eliminated due to joint problems or hoof problems. .
Although the number of sows in China is large today, the reproductive efficiency of sows is not high, and the average number of piglets per year is less than 14. The average foreign level has reached more than 20. The sow problem has become one of the most urgent problems in domestic pig production. Here we work together to make suggestions and work together to raise the management of sow production to a new level.
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